Kim Wallen

Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Psychology and Behavioral Neuroendocrinology

Office: 385 Psychology Building

Phone: 404-727-4125

Fax: 404-727-0372

Email: kim@emory.edu

Additional Contact Information

Mailing Address:

Department of Psychology

36 Eagle Row
Emory University

Atlanta, GA 30322

Biography

Dr Wallen received his B.A. in Biology at  Antioch College in 1970 where he first worked with nonhuman primates at the Oregon Primate Center while on an antioch coop job.  After completing two years of alternative service as a conscientious objecter he entered graduate school in Neuroscience at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin receiving his Ph.D. in 1978.  His graduate work was followed by post-doctoral training at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center before joining the faculty of Emory College in 1979.  Dr. Wallen has been the President of the Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology and the International Academy of Sex Research.  He is an Associate Editor of the journal, Hormones and Behavior.

Courses Taught

  • PSYC 321/NBB 321  Behavioral Neuroendocrinology of Sex
  • SYC 551: Psychobiology Proseminar 
  • PSYC 770U: Unix Tools for Behavioral Research 

Other Affiliations

Other Links

Research

My laboratory investigates the interaction between hormones and social context on the development and expression of sexual and sex-related behavior in nonhuman primates. The general theme that guides our research approach is the interaction between biological mechanisms and the social and environmental context that shapes their expression and function. We study nonhuman primates because their extended development and complex social structure modal important aspects of the human condition and provide insight into the complementary role that social context and biological predispositions play in the development and expression of behavior. We also do studies in humans that complement the nonhuman primate work.

Current Projects

Current projects in the laboratory focus on the effects of atypical prenatal hormonal exposure on anatomical neuroendocrine, and behavioral development in male and female rhesus monkeys. Other work investigates the role that steroid hormones, specifically estrogens, androgens, and progestins play in the modulation of female sexual desire in monkeys. We are currently investigating hormonal therapies that reinstate sexual motivation in females as possible post-menopausal therapies in women.

Collaborative work with Dr. Stephan Hamann investigates sex differences in neural activation to sexual stimuli in men and women. All nonhuman primate research is performed at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center Field Station using social groups of monkeys.

Lab Members
Emeritus lab members
  • Stephanie Allard, Research Technician, Currently: Graduate Student, GA Tech
  • Patricia Boyle, Ph.D.  Research Assistant, Currently, Assistant Professor of Neurology, University of Illinois, Chicago
  • Rhiannon Brey, Research Specialist, Currently preparing to enter Vet school
  • Jennie Crosby, MA, Lead Research Specialist, currently research assistant, Chicago
  • Christine Drea Ph.D., Graduate Student, Currently: Assistant Professor, Duke University
  • Jessica Ganas, Research Technician: Current: Graduate Student, Antioch Vermont
  • Rebecca Herman, Ph.D., Graduate Student, currently Post-doctoral Fellow, GSU
  • Andrew Kennedy, Research Assistant
  • Ben Jones, Research Specialist, currently working for the Red Cross
  • Jennifer Lovejoy Ph.D.,  Graduate Student, Currently: Associate Professor, Pennington Institute, Baton Rouge, LA
  • Dario Maestripieri Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow, Currently: Associate Professor, University of Chicago
  • Pamela Tannenbaum Ph.D., Graduate Student, Currently, Reproductive Scientist, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceuticals
  • Page van Meter, Lead Research Specialist, currently Graduate Student MSU, Department of Zoology
  • Julia Zehr, Ph.D., Graduate Student, Postdoctoral Fellow, MSU, Neuroscience Program
  • Michelle Tomaszycki, Ph.D. Graduate Student (Harold Gouzoules, primary mentor), Postdoctoral Fellow, Cornell University, Department of Psychology

Publications

Recent Publications

Wallen, K. (1996) Nature needs nurture: The interaction of hormonal and social influences on the development of behavioral sex differences in rhesus monkeys. Hormones and Behavior. 30:364-378.

Drea, C.M. and Wallen, K. (1999) Low status monkeys "play dumb" when learning in mixed social groups. P.N.A.S.  96: 12965-12969.

Herman, R.A., Jones, B. Mann, D.R., & Wallen, K. (2000) Timing of prenatal androgen exposure: anatomical and endocrine effects on juvenile male and female rhesus monkeys.  Hormones and Behavior 38:52-66.

Zehr, J.L., Tannenbaum, P.L., Jones, B., and Wallen, K. (2000) Peak occurrence of female sexual initiation predicts day of conception in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Reproduction Fertility and Development. 12:1-8.

Tomaszycki, M.L, Davis, J.E., Gouzoules, H., and Wallen, K. (2001)  Sex Differences in Infant Rhesus Macaque Separation-Rejection Vocalizations: The Relationship to the Prenatal Hormone Environment. Hormones and Behavior 39:267-276.

Wallen, K. (2001) Sex and context: Hormones and primate sexual motivation. Hormones and Behavior. 40:339-357.

Wallen, K, and Baum, M.J. (2002) Masculinization and defeminization in altricial and precocial mammals:  Comparative aspects of steroid hormone action. In (Pfaff, D. W. Ed) Hormones, Brain, and Behavior., Academic Press, New York, pp. 385-423

Herman, R.A., Measday, M.A., and Wallen, K. (2003) Sex differences in interest in infants in juvenile rhesus monkeys: relationship to prenatal androgen.  Hormones and Behavior  43:573-583.

Wallen, K. and Zehr, J.L. (2004) Hormones and history: The evolution and development of primate female sexuality. Journal of Sex Research 41:101-112.

Hamann, S., Herman, R.A., Nolan, C.L., Wallen, K. (2004) Men and women differ in amygdala response to visual sexual stimuli ., Nature Neuroscience 7:411-6.

Wallen, K., (2005) Hormonal influences on sexually differentiated behavior in nonhuman primates. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology,  26:7-26.

1990 to Present

Lovejoy, J.C. and Wallen, K. (1990) Adrenal suppression and sexual initiation in group-living female rhesus monkeys. Hormones and Behavior 24:256-269.

Wallen, K. (1990) Desire and ability: Hormones and the regulation of female sexual behavior. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 14(2):233-241.

Fagot, J. and Wallen, K. (1990) Lateralisation manuelle chez le singe rhesus: Variations des preferences en fonction de la posture et de la modalite sensorielle dominante. Bulletin Societe Francaise pour L'Etude du Comportement Animal 5(1): 91-98.

Fagot, J., Drea, C.M., and Wallen, K. (1991) Asymmetrical hand usage in rhesus monkeys in tactually and visually regulated tasks. Journal of Comparative Psychology 105:260-268.

Wallen, K., Eisler, J.A., Tannenbaum, P.L., Nagell, K.M., Mann, D.R. (1991) Antide (NAL-LYS GnRH antagonist) suppression of pituitary-testicular function and sexual behavior in group-living rhesus monkeys. Physiology and Behavior 50:429-435.

Mann, D.R., Gould,K.G., and Wallen, K. (1992) Use of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues to influence sexual and behavioral development, In: Serono Symposia, USA series: Symposium on modes of action of GnRH and GnRH Analogs.

Wallen, K (1992) Evolutionary hypothesis testing: Consistency is not enough; a commentary on Age preferences in mates reflect sex differences in reproductive strategies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences., 15:118-119. (Commentary)

Wallen, K. (1992) Rhesus female sexual behavior: Environmental regulation of sexual initiation. In: Sex Matters, W. Bezemer, et al., Eds; Elsevier,Amsterdam.

Mann, D.R., Akinbami, M.A., Gould, K.G., Tanner, J.M., and Wallen, Kim (1993) Neonatal treatment of male monkeys with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist alters differentiation of central nervous system centers that regulate sexual and skeletal development. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.,76:1319-1324.

Wallen, K. and Lovejoy, J.C. (1993) Sexual behavior: Endocrine function and therapy. In: Hormonally induced Changes in Mind and Brain., J. Schulkin, Ed., Academic Press, San Diego.

Eisler, J.A., Tannenbaum, P.L., Mann, D.R., and Wallen, K. (1993) Neonatal testicular suppression with a GnRH agonist in rhesus monkeys: Effects on adult endocrine function and behavior. Hormones and Behavior. 27:551-567.

Mann, D.R., Ansari, A.A., Akinbami, M.A., Wallen, K., Gould, K.G., and McClure, H.M. (1994) Neonatal Treatment with LHRH analogues alters peripheral lymphocyte subsets and cell- and humoral-mediated immune responses in juvenile and adult male rhesus monkeys. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 78:292-298

Maestripieri, D.M. and Wallen, K. (1995) Interest in infants varies with reproductive condition in group-living female pigtail macaques (Macaca nemistrina). Physiology and Behavior. 57(2):353-358.

Wallen, K. (1995) The evolution of female sexual desire. In Sexual Nature, Sexual Culture (Eds.) Abramson, P and Pinkerton, S.; University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 57-79.

Drea, C. M., Wallen, K., Akinbami, M.A., Mann, D.R. (1995) Neonatal testosterone and handedness in young rhesus monkeys. Physiology and Behavior, 58(6):1-4

Wallen, K. (1996) Nature needs nurture: The interaction of hormonal and social influences on the development of behavioral sex differences in rhesus monkeys. Hormones and Behavior. 30:364-378.

Wallen, K, and Tannenbaum, P. L. (1997) Hormonal modulation of sexual behavior and affiliation in rhesus monkeys. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 807:185-202.

Tannenbaum, P.L. and Wallen, K. (1997) Sexually initiated affiliation facilitates rhesus monkey integration. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 807:578-582.

Maestripieri, D.M., Wallen, K. and Caroll, K. (1997) Infant abuse runs in families of group-living pigtail macaques. Child Abuse and Neglect. 21:465-471.

Wallen, K. & Parsons, W. (1997)  Sexual behavior in same-sexed nonhuman primates:  Is it relevant to understanding human homosexuality. Annual Review of Sex Research 8:195-223.

Mann, D.R., Akinbami, M. A., Wallen, K., Gould, K.G., Groome, N.P., Swanston, I., McNeilly, A.S., and Fraser, H. M., (1997) Inhibin-B in the male rhesus monkey: Impact of neonatal GnRH antagonist treatment and sexual development.  Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism,82:1928-1933.

Maestripieri, D.M.,  Wallen, K. and Caroll, K.  (1997)  Geneological and demographic influences on infant abuse and neglect in group-living sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys).  Developmental Psychobiology 31:175-180.

Maestripieri, D.M. and Wallen, K,  (1997)  Affiliative and submissive communication in rhesus macaques.  Primates, 38:127‑138.

Wallen, K. and Parsons, W. A. (1997) Sexual behavior in same‑sexed nonhuman primates: Is it relevant to understanding human homosexuality? Annual Review of Sex Research 8:195‑223.

Mann, D.R,  Akinbami, M.A., Gould, K.G., Paul, K., and Wallen, K  (1998) Sexual maturation in male rhesus monkeys: Importance of neonatal testosterone exposure and Social Rank.  Journal of Endocrinology 156:493-501.

Wallen, K. (1998) Ovarian influences on female development: Revolutionary or evolutionary?, Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21:339-340.

Zehr, J. L., Maestripieri, D. , and Wallen, K.  (1998)  Estradiol increases female sexual initiation independent of male responsiveness in rhesus monkeys.  Hormones and Behavior 33:95-103.

Wallen, K. (2000 Risky business: social context and hormonal modulation of primate sexual desire.  In: Reproduction in Context (Wallen, K. and Schneider, J, Eds.), MIT Press. pp 289-323.

Wallen, K. (2000) The development of hypothalamic control of sexual behavior, In Proceedings of the 5th Conference on the Control of the Onset of Puberty. (Bourginon, J.‑P. and Plant, T.M., Eds), Elsevier Press.

Herman, R.A., Jones, B., Mann, D.R., and Wallen, K. (2000) Timing of prenatal androgen exposure: Anatomical and endocrine effects on juvenile male and female rhesus monkeys.  Hormones and Behavior. 38:52-66.

Zehr, J.L., Tannenbaum, P.L., Jones, B., and Wallen, K. (2000) Peak occurrence of female sexual initiation predicts day of conception in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 12:1-8.

Wallen, K. (2000) Social context and hormonal regulation of primate sexual motivation. Trabajos del Instituto Cahal, Vol. LXXVII: 72-74.

Herman, R.A., Jones, B., Kennedy, A.D., Mann, D., Wallen, K. (2000) Timing of prenatal androgen exposure: neuroendocrine and behavioral consequences in infant rhesus monkeys. Trabajos del Instituto Cahal, Vol. LXXVII: 190-192.

Zehr, J.L., Van Meter, P.E., Ganas, J.L., and Wallen, K. (2000) Prenatal androgen manipulation and puberty onset in female rhesus monkeys. Trabajos del Instituto Cahal, Vol. LXXVII: 193-195.

Tomaszycki, M.L, Davis, J.E., Gouzoules, H., and Wallen, K. (2001)  Sex Differences in Infant Rhesus Macaque Separation-Rejection Vocalizations: The Relationship to the Prenatal Hormone Environment. Hormones and Behavior 39:267-276.

Wallen, K. (2001) Sex and context: Hormones and primate sexual motivation.  Hormones and Behavior.  40:339-357.

Wallen, K, and Baum, M.J. (2002) Masculinization and defeminization in altricial and precocial mammals:  Comparative aspects of steroid hormone action. In (Pfaff, D.W.Ed) Hormones,Brain, and Behavior., Academic Press, New York, pp. 385-423

Graves, F.C., Wallen, K., and  Maestripieri, D. (2002) Opioids and attachment in rhesus macaque abusive mothers, Behavioral Neuroscience. 116:489-93.

Maestripieri, D. and Wallen, K. (2002) Nonhuman primate models of developmental psychopathology: Problems and Prospects.  In (Cicchetti, D. and Walker, E.F.) Neurodevelopmental Factors in Psychopathology.

Drea, C.M. and Wallen, K. (2003) Female sexuality and the myth of male control.  In (Travis, C)  Evolution, Gender, and Rape, MIT Press, pp 29-60.

Wallen, K., Zehr, J.L., Herman, R.A., & Graves, F.C. (2003) Sexuality.  In (D. Maestripieri, Ed.) Primate Psychology, Harvard University Press, pp 69-107.

Herman, R.A., Measday, M.A., and Wallen, K. (2003) Sex differences in interest in infants in juvenile rhesus monkeys: relationship to prenatal androgen.  Hormones and Behavior 43:573-583

Wilson ME, Mook D, Graves F, Felger J, Bielsky IF, Wallen K.  (2003)  Tamoxifen is an estrogen antagonist in the regulation of gonadotropin secretion and responsiveness of the hypothalamic – pituitary – adrenal axis in female monkeys.  Endocrine 22: 305 – 316

Wallen, K. and Zehr, J.L. (2004) Hormones and history: The evolution and development of primate female sexuality.  Journal of Sex Research 41:101-112.

Hamann, S., Herman, R.A., Nolan, C.L., Wallen, K. (2004) Men and women differ in amygdala response to visual sexual stimuli ., Nature Neuroscience 7:411-6.

Karen Pazol, Mark E. Wilson, and Kim Wallen (2004) Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Antagonizes the Effects of Estrogen Treatment on Social and Sexual Behavior in Female Macaques. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89(6):2998-3006.

Zehr JL, Van Meter PE, Wallen K. (2005) Factors Regulating the Timing of Puberty Onset in Female Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Role of Prenatal Androgens, Social Rank, and Adolescent Body Weight. Biology of  Reproduction.  72:1087-1094.

Wallen, K., (2005) Hormonal influences on sexually differentiated behavior in nonhuman primates. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology,  26:7-26.

Mook D, Felger J, Graves F, Wallen K, Wilson ME. (2005)  Tamoxifen fails to affect central serotonergic tone but increases indices of anxiety in female rhesus monkeys. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 30, 273–283

Alexander, J., Kotz,K, Dennerstein, L, Kutner, JS, Wallen, K, Notelovitz, M. (2004) The effects of menopausal hormone therapies on female sexual functioning: A review of double blind randomized controlled trials.  Menopause 11:749-765.

Khan, Z, Herman, R. Wallen, K. Balch, T. (In Press) An outdoor 3-d visual tracking system for the study of spatial navigation and memory in rhesus monkeys. Behavior Research Methods Instruments and Computers.

McFadden, D., Pasanen, E., Raper, J., Lange, H., and Wallen, K. (2006). Sex differences in otoacoustic emissions measured in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Hormones and  Behavior  50(2): 274-284.

Herman, R.A. and Wallen, K. (2007). Cognitive performance in rhesus monkeys varies by sex and prenatal androgen exposure.  Hormones and Behavior 51:496-507.

Rupp, H.A. and Wallen, K. (2007). Sex differences in viewing sexual stimuli: an eye-tracking study in men and women. Hormones and Behavior 51(4):524-533.

Rupp, H.A. and Wallen, K. (2007).  Relationship between testosterone and interest in sexual stimuli: The effect of experience, Hormones and Behavior, 52(5): 581-589.

Rupp, H.A., Wallen, K. (2007). Sex Differences in Response to Visual Sexual Stimuli: A Review, Archives of Sexual Behavior. 37(2):206-18.

Wallen, K., Lloyd, E.A. (2008).  Clitoral variability compared to penile variability supports nonadaptation of female orgasm.  Evolution and Development, 10(1): 1-2.

Hassett, J. M., Siebert, E., Wallen, K. (2008). Sex differences in rhesus monkey toy preferences parallel those of children. Hormones and Behavior. 54, 359-64.

Wallen, K.,  Hassett, J.  (2009).  Neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying social relations.  In: Endocrinology of Social Relationships, Peter Ellison & Peter  Gray, Eds., Harvard  University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp.32-53.

Wallen, K.,  Hassett, J.M. (2009). Sexual Differentiation of Behavior in Monkeys: Role of Prenatal Hormones, Journal of Neuroendocrinology. 21:421-426.

Rupp, H. A.,  Wallen, K. (2009). Sex-specific content preferences for visual sexual stimuli. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 38(3): 417-26.

Wallen, K.  (2009). The Organizational Hypothesis: Reflections on the 50th anniversary of the publication of Phoenix, Goy, Gerall, and Young (1959), Hormones and Behavior. 55:561-565.

Pazol, K., Northcutt, K. V., Patisaul, H. B., Wallen. K., Wilson, M.E. (2009). Progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate differentially regulate alpha4 subunit expression of GABA(A) receptors in the CA1 hippocampus of female rats. Physiology and Behavior. 97(1): 58-61.

Wallen, K. (2009). Does finger fat produce sex differences in second to fourth digit ratios? Endocrinology. 150(11): 4819-22.

Hassett, J. M., Rupp, H.A., Wallen, K. (2010). Social segregation in male, but not female yearling rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology.  72(2): 87-92.

Wallen, K., Rupp, H.A.  (2010). Women's interest in visual sexual stimuli varies with menstrual cycle phase at first exposure and predicts later interest. Hormones and Behavior. 57:263-8.

Diamond, L. M., Wallen, K., (2010) Sexual Minority Women's Sexual Motivation Around the Time of Ovulation. Arch Sex Behav. 40: 237-246. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-010-9631-2.

Giuliano, F., Pfaus, J., Balasubramanian, S., Hedlund, P., Hisasue, S., Marson, L., Wallen, K. (2010). Experimental models for the study of female and male sexual function. J Sex Med. 7: 2970-95.

Wallen, K., Lloyd, E. A., (2011)  Female sexual arousal: Genital anatomy and orgasm in intercourse. Hormones and Behavior. 59:780-792.